I. The influence of temperature on the 6 aspects of dough fermentation
Temperature is an important factor that affects yeast fermentation. Yeast requires a certain temperature range in the process of fermentation of southern dough, generally controlled at 25~30℃. If the temperature is too low it will affect the fermentation speed. The temperature is too high, although it can shorten the fermentation time, but it will create favorable conditions for the growth of miscellaneous bacteria, and affect product quality. For example, the optimum temperature of acetic acid bacteria 35 ℃, the optimum temperature of lactic acid bacteria is 37 ℃, these two bacteria grow faster will increase the acidity of bread, reducing product quality. Therefore, it is best to control the temperature at 25~28℃ when fermenting the dough, higher than 30℃ or poor control of the process conditions, are prone to quality accidents.
2. The influence of 6 aspects of the dough fermentation yeast fermentation power and the influence of the amount
(1) yeast fermentation power is an important indicator of yeast quality. In the dough fermentation, the yeast fermentation power of high or low has a great impact on the quality of dough fermentation. If yeast with low fermentation power is used, it will cause the dough to ferment slowly, which will easily cause the dough to rise and moisten inadequately and affect the quality of dough fermentation. Therefore, it is required that the fermentation power of general yeast is above 650mL, and the fermentation power of active dry yeast is above 600mL.
(2) In the process of dough fermentation, yeast with equal fermenting power can promote the speed of dough fermentation if the amount of yeast is increased when used in the same species and under the same conditions. Conversely, if the amount of yeast is reduced, the speed of southern dough fermentation will be significantly slowed down. Therefore, when dough fermentation is carried out, the amount of yeast can be increased or decreased to suit the requirements of the dough fermentation process. In general when producing bread with special flour, the amount of yeast is 0.6%~1% of the amount of flour; when producing bread with bread flour, the amount of yeast is 1%~1.5% of the flour.
3. The influence of acidity of the 6 aspects that affect the dough fermentation
The acidity of bread is an important indicator of the quality of the finished bread. The acidity of bread is generated by the metabolic action of various acid-producing bacteria in a series of fermentation processes, such as lactic acid fermentation, acetic acid fermentation, butyric acid fermentation, etc..
Lactic acid fermentation is a frequent process in the dough. The dough is contaminated by lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation, and under suitable conditions lactic acid bacteria grow and multiply, decompose simple sugars and produce lactic acid. About 60% of the acidity in bread comes from lactic acid, followed by acetic acid. Although lactic acid increases the acidity of dough, it can improve the flavor of bread by esterification with ethanol produced in ethanol fermentation.
Acetic acid fermentation is the process of turning the ethanol produced during yeast fermentation into acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. Acetic acid can give bread an irritating sour taste, and this type of fermentation action is avoided as much as possible in bread production.
Butyric acid fermentation is the decomposition of simple sugars into butyric acid and carbon dioxide by butyric acid bacteria. Butyric acid bacteria contain many enzymes, and these enzymes can hydrolyze multi-grain into leavenable sugars for use in fermentation.
The rise of acidity in the dough during fermentation is caused by acid producing bacteria, which are mainly from fresh yeast. Therefore, it is important to strictly control the fermentation temperature of dough and prevent the growth and reproduction of acid-producing bacteria.
The amount of yeast added to the dough is also an important factor that affects the acidity of the dough. The acidity of the dough increases with the amount of yeast. In addition, different fermentation methods have different effects on dough PH, and dough PH is closely related to dough gas-holding and bread volume large water. PH is the largest volume of bread when it is near the isoelectric white (5.5) of small family proteins, and the farther it deviates from the isoelectric point, the smaller the volume, which is because the protein fully reveals its amphoteric nature at the isoelectric point, and protein molecules can easily combine with each other to form gluten network, so, in dough Therefore, in the dough fermentation management, must control the dough PH in 4~6.
4. The influence of flour quality on the 6 aspects of dough fermentation
The influence of flour quality is mainly the influence of gluten and enzymes in flour.
(1) Influence of gluten The dioxide-carbon gas produced during the fermentation of dough needs to be wrapped by the network formed by strong gluten to make the dough expand and form a sponge-like structure. If the flour contains weak gluten, the large amount of gas generated during dough fermentation cannot be maintained and escapes, easily causing the bread bun to collapse. So bread production should choose strong flour.
(2) The influence of enzymes Yeast in the fermentation process, the need for amylase to constantly break down the starch into simple sugars for the yeast to use, if it has deteriorated or are treated with high temperature flour, its amylase activity is inhibited, reducing the saccharification capacity of the flour, affecting the normal fermentation of the dough. In the production of this situation, you can often add malt flour in the dough to make up for the above deficiencies
(3) The effect of wheat flour maturity Wheat flour maturity is insufficient or excessive to make the ability to hold the power of gas deteriorate. Insufficient maturity should use oxidizing agent, excessive maturity should reduce the amount of dough improver.
5. Influence of water content in the dough of the 6 major aspects affecting dough fermentation
Yeast in the process of reproduction sprout growth rate with the dough of different soft and hard and different, within a certain range, the higher the water content in the dough, the faster the yeast sprout growth, and vice versa, the slower.
Therefore, softening the dough will help yeast spore growth and speed up the fermentation rate. You can adjust the dough for the first time according to the need, softening it properly will help speed up the fermentation rate, shorten the production cycle and improve the production efficiency.
The amount of water added to the dough should be based on the water absorption capacity of the flour and the amount of protein content in the flour. Protein content of different types of flour and their water absorption rate.
Protein content of different kinds of flour and its listening rate
Flour type Protein content % Water absorption rate/%
Soft wheat flour 11.00 47.8
Hard wheat flour 18.15 51.8
From the table, it can be seen that: high protein content in flour has high water absorption rate, and vice versa, it has low water absorption rate. Therefore, when blending flour, the amount of water is generally determined by the measured gluten content of the flour. Under normal circumstances, softer doughs are easily expanded by carbon dioxide gas, thus speeding up the fermentation rate, while harder doughs are resistant to the expansion force of the gas, thus inhibiting the fermentation rate of the dough. Therefore, it is beneficial to increase the water content of the dough properly for dough fermentation.
6. The influence of 6 major aspects of the dough fermentation of the impact of raw and auxiliary materials
The amount of sugar used is 5% to 7% when the gas production capacity is large, beyond this range, the more sugar, the more inhibited the fermentation capacity, but the duration of gas production is long, at this time to pay attention to add nitrogen sources and inorganic salts. The amount of sugar used below 20% can enhance the gas-holding capacity, and above 20% the gas-holding capacity decreases.
Salt can inhibit the activity of enzymes. Therefore, the more salt is added, the more the gas production capacity of yeast is limited. However, salt can enhance the tendon strength of the gluten. Make the stability of the dough increased.
(3) Dairy products
The buffering effect of dairy products can make the PH of dough fall slowly. But in the dough of polysaccharide and containing lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria are generated rapidly, resulting in a decrease in the stability of gas holding capacity.
The PH of egg is high, and the protein has buffering and emulsifying effects, which can enhance the stability of dough.
Glycolytic enzymes have the property of acting slowly after a certain period of time, which can enhance the gas production capacity in the late stage of fermentation. (6) Yeast feed There is ammonium salt in yeast feed which can increase the gas production capacity in the middle of fermentation, but it should not be used in excess.
(6) Yeast feed
There is ammonium salt in yeast food that can increase the gas production capacity in the middle of fermentation, but it should not be used in excess.